Abstract:Linguistic landscape research focuses on relationships between written languages in public spaces and the sociodemographic structure of a city. While a great deal of work has been done on the evaluation of linguistic landscapes in different cities, most of the studies are based on ad-hoc interpretation of data collected from fieldwork. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new methodological framework that combines computer vision and machine learning techniques for assessing the diversity of languages from street-level images. As demonstrated with an analysis of a small Chinese community in Seoul, South Korea, the proposed approach can reveal the spatiotemporal pattern of linguistic variations effectively and provide insights into the demographic composition as well as social changes in the neighborhood. Although the method presented in this work is at a conceptual stage, it has the potential to open new opportunities to conduct linguistic landscape research at a large scale and in a reproducible manner. It is also capable of yielding a more objective description of a linguistic landscape than arbitrary classification and interpretation of on-site observations. The proposed approach can be a new direction for the study of linguistic landscapes that builds upon urban analytics methodology, and it will help both geographers and sociolinguists explore and understand our society.Keywords: linguistic landscape; street-level images; computer vision; urban analytics; urban computing
If Cole is rightly designated the founder of the school, then its beginnings appear with his arrival in New York City in 1825. He determined to become a landscape painter after a period of itinerant portrait painting in Ohio and western Pennsylvania, and a stint in Philadelphia during which he admired and imitated the landscapes of early American specialists such as Thomas Doughty. As significantly, in 1824, a tourist hotel was opened in the Catskill Mountains 100 miles upriver from New York. Once in New York in late 1825, Cole sailed for the Catskills, making sketches there and elsewhere along the banks of the Hudson. He produced a series of paintings that, when spotted in a bookstore window by three influential artists, gained him widespread commissions and almost instant fame. He was welcomed into the larger cultural life of the city, and was befriended especially by William Cullen Bryant, the poet and newspaper editor, who wrote a sonnet to Cole when he departed on a Grand Tour of Europe in 1829.
Dream can transform existing photos into cartoons or faux paintings, as well as use a complex algorithm to turn words and phrases into unique works of art. The tool allows you to choose from a variety of art styles, or you can opt for futuristic landscapes. 781b155fdc