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In PowerPoint for Windows and macOS, you can add closed captions or subtitles to videos and audio files in your presentations. Adding closed captions makes your presentation accessible to a larger audience, including people with hearing disabilities and those who speak languages other than the one in your video.
For instructions on showing captions when watching a video in the supported versions of PowerPoint, refer to the section "Turn on closed captions or subtitles by using the keyboard" in the article Accessibility features in video playback on PowerPoint.
In addition to the basic considerations regarding the allowability of costs highlighted in this subtitle, other subtitles in this part describe special considerations and requirements applicable to states, local governments, Indian tribes, and IHEs. In addition, certain provisions among the items of cost in this subpart are only applicable to certain types of non-Federal entities, as specified in the following sections:
I. Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH)This section applies to subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing created for English language content (i.e. intralingual subtitles). For English subtitles for non-English language content, please see Section II
Text in each line in a dual speaker subtitle must be a contained sentence and should not carry into the preceding or subsequent subtitle. Creating shorter sentences and timing appropriately helps to accommodate this.
With 19.08.0 editing with keyboard shortcuts was introduced. This will speed up the editing work and you can do editing steps that are not possible or not as quick and easy with the mouse. Working with keyboard shortcuts in 19.08 is different as in the former Kdenlive versions. Mouse operations have not changed and working as before. See 3 point editing.
In this edit mode, you can not drag clips on top of other clips in the same track in the timeline. You can drag them to another track in the timeline but not into the same track at the same time point as an existing clip. Contrast this to overwrite mode.
With this mode selected and you drop a selection into the timeline the selection will be inserted into the timeline at the point where the mouse is released. The clip that the selection is dropped on is cut and clips are moved to the right to accommodate the incoming clip.
Seems missing in Kdenlive 17.04 & 18.04 Mark In and Out points in the Project Monitor, then choose Timeline->All clips->Ripple Delete (or Ctrl-X). Kdenlive deletes all footage between the In and Out points in unlocked tracks, slides everything else back to fill the gap, and puts the playhead on the In point.
The subtitling tool allows you to add and edit subtitles directly in the timeline on a special subtitle track or by using the new subtitle window. You can also import (SRT/ASS) and export (SRT) subtitles.
Subtitles are primarily intended to serve viewers with loss of hearing, but they are used by a wide range of people: around 10% of broadcast viewers use subtitles regularly, increasing to 35% for some online content. The majority of these viewers are not hard of hearing.
This document describes 'closed' subtitles only, also known as 'closed captions'. Typically delivered as a separate file, closed subtitles can be switched off by the user and are not 'burnt in' to the image.
There are many formats in circulation for subtitle files. In general, the BBC accepts EBU-TT part 1 with STL embedded for broadcast, and EBU-TT-D for online only content. For a full description of the delivery requirements, see the File format section.
The Subtitle Guidelines describe best practice for authoring subtitles and provide instructions for making subtitle files for the BBC. This document brings together documents previously published by Ofcom and the BBC and is intended to serve as the basis for all subtitle work across the BBC: prepared and live, online and broadcast, internal and supplied.
The editorial guidelines in the Presentation section are written in plain English, requiring only general familiarity with subtitles. In contrast, to follow the technical instructions in the File format section you will need good working knowledge of XML and CSS. It is recommended that you also familiarise yourself with Timed Text Markup Language and SMPTE timecodes.
An overview of subtitles: read this introduction and the first few sections of Presentation, Timing, Identifying speakers and EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D Documents in detail. Scanning through the examples will also give you a good understanding of how subtitles are made.
Making subtitle files for online-only content: if your software does not support EBU-TT-D you will need to create an XML file yourself. Assuming you are familiar with XML and CSS, start with Introduction to the TTML document structure and Example EBU-TT-D document. Then follow the quick EBU-TT-D how-to.
Assistance with these guidelines and specific technical questions can be emailed to email@example.com. For help with requirements for specific subtitle documents contact the commissioning editor.
Most of this document applies to both online and broadcast subtitles. When there are differences between subtitles intended for either platform, this is indicated with one of these flags: online - applies only to subtitles for online use (not for broadcast). broadcast - applies to broadcast-only subtitles (not online). When no broadcast or online flag is indicated, the text applies to all subtitles.
Subtitles must conform to one of two specifications: EBU-TT-D (subtitles intended for online distribution only) or EBU-TT version 1.0 (for broadcast and online). Sections that only apply to one of the specifications are indicated by one of these flags: EBU-TT-D or EBU-TT 1.0.
Queries and comments may be raised at any time on the subtitle guidelines github project by those with sufficient project access levels. Readers who do not have access to the project should email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Good subtitling is an art that requires negotiating conflicting requirements. On the whole, you should aim for subtitles that are faithful to the audio. However, you will need to balance this against considerations such as the action on the screen, speed of speech or editing and visual content.
However, if you have a very "busy" scene, full of action and disconnected conversations, it might be confusing if you subtitle fragments of speech here and there, rather than allowing the viewer to watch what is going on.
In Teletext, which is used to display subtitles on some broadcast platforms, line length is limited to 37 fixed-width (monospaced) characters, since at least 3 of the 40 available bytes are used for control codes. Other platforms use proportional fonts, making it impossible to determine the width of the line based on the number of characters alone. In this case, lines are constrained by the width of the region in which they are displayed. Guidelines for both platforms are summarised in the table below.
A maximum subtitle length of two lines is recommended. Three lines may be used if you are confident that no important picture information will be obscured. When deciding between one long line or two short ones, consider line breaks, number of words, pace of speech and the image.
Subtitles and lines should be broken at logical points. The ideal line-break will be at a piece of punctuation like a full stop, comma or dash. If the break has to be elsewhere in the sentence, avoid splitting the following parts of speech:
Line breaks within a word are especially disruptive to the reading process and should be avoided. Ideal formatting should therefore compromise between linguistic and geometric considerations but with priority given to linguistic considerations.
broadcast Left, right and centre justification can be useful to identify speaker position, especially in cases where there are more than three speakers on screen. In such cases, line breaks should be inserted at linguistically coherent points, taking eye-movement into careful consideration. For example:
Short sentences may be combined into a single subtitle if the available reading time is limited. However, you should also consider the image and the action on screen. For example, consecutive subtitles may reflect better the pace of speech.
In most cases verbatim subtitles are preferred to edited subtitles (see this research by BBC R&D) so avoid breaking long sentences into two shorter sentences. Instead, allow a single long sentence to extend over more than one subtitle. Sentences should be segmented at natural linguistic breaks such that each subtitle forms an integrated linguistic unit. Thus, segmentation at clause boundaries is to be preferred. For example:
In the examples given above, no markers are used to indicate that segmentation is taking place. It is also acceptable to use sequences of dots (three at the end of a to-be-continued subtitle, and two at the beginning of a continuation) to mark the fact that a segmentation is taking place, especially in legacy subtitle files.
Good line-breaks are extremely important because they make the process of reading and understanding far easier. However, it is not always possible to produce good line-breaks as well as well-edited text and good timing. Where these constraints are mutually exclusive, then well-edited text and timing are more important than line-breaks.
The recommended subtitle speed is 160-180 words-per-minute (WPM) or 0.33 to 0.375 second per word. However, viewers tend to prefer verbatim subtitles, so the rate may be adjusted to match the pace of the programme. Most subtitle authoring tools calculate the WPM and can be configured to give a warning when the word rate exceeds a certain WPM threshhold. You can also calculate the WPM manually (see box). 781b155fdc